Preparing for Extreme Weather Events

Extreme weather events are unusual, severe, or unseasonal weather that fall outside of a location's historical weather distribution. They are defined as being in the most unusual 10% of a probability density function. Extreme weather events can have devastating effects on communities, ecosystems, and can cause economic costs, loss of life, droughts, floods, and landslides.

Preparing for Extreme Weather Events

Preparing for Extreme Weather Events

URL: is the official website of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, providing comprehensive information on preparing for various types of disasters, including extreme weather events. The site offers step-by-step guidance on creating emergency plans, building disaster supply kits, and staying informed during emergencies.

National Weather Service


The National Weather Service is the official government agency responsible for providing weather forecasts, warnings, and advisories for the United States. Their website offers detailed information on current weather conditions, severe weather alerts, and safety tips for various extreme weather events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods.

American Red Cross


The American Red Cross is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance and disaster relief. Their website offers valuable resources on preparing for extreme weather events, including downloadable emergency preparedness guides, tips for creating a family disaster plan, and information on emergency shelters and assistance programs.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)


FEMA is the federal agency responsible for coordinating the government's response to disasters and emergencies. Their website provides extensive information on preparing for and recovering from extreme weather events, including guides on emergency preparedness, disaster assistance programs, and tips for mitigating damage to homes and property.

The Weather Channel


The Weather Channel is a popular source for up-to-date weather forecasts, news, and information. Their website offers a dedicated section on weather preparedness, featuring articles, videos, and infographics on how to prepare for and stay safe during extreme weather events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and severe storms.

National Hurricane Center


The National Hurricane Center is the division of the National Weather Service responsible for tracking and forecasting tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific oceans. Their website provides critical information on current hurricane activity, including forecast tracks, wind speed probabilities, and safety tips for preparing for and surviving a hurricane.

The Salvation Army


The Salvation Army is a charitable organization that provides emergency assistance and disaster relief services. Their website offers information on how to prepare for extreme weather events, including tips for creating a disaster supply kit, developing an emergency communication plan, and finding local disaster assistance resources.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)


The CDC is the national public health agency of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and safety. Their website provides information on preparing for and staying safe during extreme weather events, with a focus on health-related concerns such as food and water safety, sanitation, and preventing illness and injury.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)


NOAA is a federal agency responsible for monitoring and understanding the Earth's oceans and atmosphere. Their website offers a wealth of information on extreme weather events, including educational resources, research findings, and tools for tracking and predicting severe weather.

Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS)


The IBHS is a nonprofit research organization that provides guidance on building and maintaining homes and businesses to withstand extreme weather events. Their website offers a variety of resources, including research reports, videos, and interactive tools for assessing and improving the resilience of structures against severe weather.

What to Do During an Extreme Weather Event

What to Do During an Extreme Weather Event - During a Hurricane


This page from provides crucial information on what to do during a hurricane, including following evacuation orders, seeking shelter, and staying informed through official channels. It also offers guidance on how to stay safe if caught outdoors or in a vehicle during a hurricane.

National Weather Service - During a Tornado


The National Weather Service offers life-saving advice on what to do during a tornado, depending on where you are when the tornado strikes. The page provides specific instructions for seeking shelter in a building, mobile home, or vehicle, as well as what to do if caught outdoors.

American Red Cross - During a Flood


This American Red Cross page offers essential tips on staying safe during a flood, such as avoiding floodwaters, moving to higher ground, and following evacuation orders. It also provides guidance on what to do if you must evacuate your home due to flooding.

FEMA - During an Extreme Heat Event


FEMA's page on extreme heat events provides valuable information on how to stay safe during a heatwave, including staying hydrated, seeking air-conditioned environments, and monitoring for signs of heat-related illness. The page also offers special considerations for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with chronic medical conditions.

The Weather Channel - During a Severe Thunderstorm


The Weather Channel's severe thunderstorm safety page provides critical information on what to do during a severe thunderstorm, including seeking shelter in a sturdy building, staying away from windows and electrical equipment, and avoiding contact with plumbing and corded phones. The page also offers guidance on what to do if caught outdoors during a severe thunderstorm.

Extreme Weather Events Portfolio

Top 10 Websites About Extreme Weather Events

National Hurricane Center


The National Hurricane Center provides the latest information on tropical cyclones, including forecasts, advisories, and educational resources. The website offers a comprehensive overview of current and past hurricanes, as well as preparedness tips for individuals and communities.

Tornado Alley


Tornado Alley is a website dedicated to providing information and resources about tornadoes. It features articles, videos, and interactive maps that help visitors understand the science behind tornadoes, their impact, and how to stay safe during a tornado event.

Flood Safety


Flood Safety is a website created by the U.S. government to educate the public about flood risks and preparedness. It provides information on the different types of floods, how to create a flood plan, and what to do before, during, and after a flood event.

Wildfire Today


Wildfire Today is a website that covers news, analysis, and commentary on wildfires across the United States and around the world. It provides up-to-date information on current wildfires, as well as articles on wildfire management, prevention, and the impact of climate change on wildfire activity.

URL: is a website that provides information and resources about droughts in the United States. It features drought maps, data, and tools to help visitors understand the current drought conditions, as well as the impacts of droughts on agriculture, water supply, and the environment.

Heat Wave Safety


Heat Wave Safety is a website created by the National Weather Service to provide information and tips on staying safe during extreme heat events. It covers the signs and symptoms of heat-related illnesses, as well as strategies for preventing heat stress and staying cool during a heat wave.

Blizzard Information


Blizzard Information is a website that provides resources and tips for preparing for and staying safe during winter storms and blizzards. It covers the different types of winter weather hazards, such as snow, ice, and extreme cold, and offers guidance on creating a winter weather plan and emergency kit.

Tsunami Warning Center


The Tsunami Warning Center is a website that provides real-time information and alerts on tsunamis in the United States and around the world. It features tsunami maps, data, and educational resources to help visitors understand the science behind tsunamis and how to stay safe in the event of a tsunami warning.

Severe Weather Europe


Severe Weather Europe is a website that covers severe weather events across Europe, including storms, tornadoes, and extreme temperatures. It provides forecasts, news, and analysis of severe weather events, as well as educational resources on weather phenomena and safety tips.

Extreme Weather Watch


Extreme Weather Watch is a website that covers a wide range of extreme weather events from around the world, including hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and droughts. It features news articles, videos, and interactive maps that help visitors stay informed about the latest extreme weather events and their impacts on communities and the environment.

Image of Extreme Climate Weather Events

Extreme weather events.
Extreme Weather Events

Extreme Weather Events Website Portfolio

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)


Description: NOAA provides comprehensive information on various extreme weather events, including hurricanes, tornadoes, and severe storms. The website offers forecasts, alerts, and educational resources.

National Hurricane Center


Description: The National Hurricane Center is the official source for hurricane forecasts, warnings, and advisories. It provides up-to-date information on current and potential hurricanes in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific regions.

Storm Prediction Center


Description: The Storm Prediction Center focuses on severe thunderstorm and tornado forecasts. It issues watches, warnings, and outlooks for severe weather events across the United States.

National Severe Storms Laboratory


Description: The National Severe Storms Laboratory conducts research on severe weather events, including tornadoes, thunderstorms, and flash floods. It provides educational resources and information on the science behind these phenomena.

U.S. Drought Monitor


Description: The U.S. Drought Monitor provides weekly updates on drought conditions across the United States. It offers maps, data, and impacts related to drought severity and extent.

National Interagency Fire Center


Description: The National Interagency Fire Center is the nation's support center for wildland firefighting. It provides information on current wildfires, fire weather forecasts, and fire prevention resources.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards


Description: The USGS Natural Hazards website provides information on various geologic hazards, including earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides. It offers real-time monitoring, alerts, and educational resources.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)


Description: FEMA is responsible for coordinating the federal government's response to natural disasters. Its website provides information on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery resources.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)


Description: The WMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations focused on weather, climate, and water. Its website provides global weather information, climate data, and resources on extreme weather events worldwide.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)


Description: The IPCC is the leading international body for assessing climate change. Its website provides comprehensive reports, assessments, and information on the scientific, technical, and socio-economic aspects of climate change, including extreme weather events.

Extreme weather events

Extreme weather events represent a significant aspect of climatic phenomena and have been increasingly under the microscope due to their growing frequency and intensity, which many scientists attribute to climate change. This essay explores the nature, causes, impacts, and responses to extreme weather events, intending to provide a comprehensive overview of the subject.

### Definition and Types of Extreme Weather Events

Extreme weather includes unusual, severe, or unseasonal weather conditions. These can lead to significant disruption in human and natural systems, often resulting in considerable economic and environmental damages. Key types of extreme weather events include:
- **Hurricanes/Cyclones/Typhoons:** Powerful storms classified by intense winds, heavy rain, and storm surges.
- **Tornadoes:** Violently rotating columns of air touching the ground, typically very destructive.
- **Extreme Heatwaves:** Periods of abnormally hot weather which can lead to droughts.
- **Extreme Cold Waves:** Unusually cold weather that can cause frostbite, hypothermia, and impact agriculture.
- **Floods:** Overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry, often caused by excessive rain or overflow of rivers.
- **Blizzards:** Severe snowstorms with strong sustained winds.
- **Droughts:** Prolonged periods of deficient rainfall leading to water shortage.

### Causes of Extreme Weather

The causes of extreme weather are varied but are frequently linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors:

- **Natural Causes:**
- **Ocean currents**
- **Solar radiation**
- **Atmospheric conditions** (like El Niño and La Niña)

- **Anthropogenic Causes:**
- **Global warming:** An increase in Earth’s average surface temperature due to rising levels of greenhouse gases like CO2.
- **Urbanization:** Which can modify local climates, often making them more prone to extreme weather.

### Impacts of Extreme Weather

The effects of extreme weather are profound and multidimensional, affecting almost all facets of life:

- **Human Impact:**
- **Health:** Extreme weather can cause direct health issues like heatstroke or hypothermia, as well as indirect health problems caused by waterborne diseases and malnutrition.
- **Displacement:** Severe weather events frequently displace populations, leading to humanitarian crises and population migrations.

- **Economic Impact:**
- **Infrastructure Damage:** Costly damages to infrastructure including roads, bridges, and buildings.
- **Agricultural Losses:** Significant impacts on agriculture through loss of crops and livestock, affecting food supply and prices.

- **Environmental Impact:**
- **Biodiversity Loss:** Severe weather can devastate habitats and lead to loss of plant and animal life.
- **Soil Degradation:** Events like floods and droughts can lead to severe soil erosion and degradation.

### Responses to Extreme Weather Events

Responses to extreme weather events can be categorized into mitigation and adaptation strategies:

- **Mitigation:**
- **Emission Reduction:** Cutting down on greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate climate change.
- **Renewable Energy:** Investing in renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels.

- **Adaptation:**
- **Infrastructure Resilience:** Enhancing the resilience of infrastructure to withstand extreme weather.
- **Early Warning Systems:** Developing and improving early warning systems to provide timely alerts before extreme weather hits.
- **Community Preparedness Programs:** Educating and preparing communities to handle emergency situations due to extreme weather.

### Conclusion

Extreme weather events pose one of the most potent threats to global stability in terms of environment, health, and economy. Understanding their causes, effects, and devising effective responses is essential for global sustainability. Continued research and investment in weather prediction technologies and infrastructure resilience are critical in managing the impacts of these potentially devastating events.

### References

- National Geographic. (n.d.). Extreme Weather. Retrieved from [National Geographic website]
- The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (n.d.). [IPCC Reports].
- United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). (n.d.). [OCHA publications].

(Note: The URLs and precise locations for the cited sources have been omitted and should be included based on specific guidelines provided for citations.)

This approach captures the essence and critical points about extreme weather events, outlining their significance and responses.

Top 40 extreme weather events worldwide

Extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change. Here is a list of 40 common types of extreme weather events that are influenced by climate change:

1. **Heatwaves** - Prolonged periods of excessively hot weather.
2. **Droughts** - Extended periods of deficient rainfall leading to water shortages.
3. **Hurricanes** - Powerful tropical storms with strong winds and heavy rain.
4. **Typhoons** - Regional term for hurricanes in the Western Pacific.
5. **Cyclones** - Large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
6. **Tornadoes** - Violently rotating columns of air touching the ground, usually spawned by thunderstorms.
7. **Thunderstorms** - Storms characterized by the presence of lightning and thunder.
8. **Floods** - Overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry.
9. **Flash floods** - Rapid flooding of low-lying areas in less than six hours.
10. **River floods** - Overflowing of rivers due to excessive rain or snowmelt.
11. **Coastal flooding** - Flooding in coastal areas caused by sea surge or high tides.
12. **Storm surges** - Rise in sea level that occurs during tropical cyclones and severe storms.
13. **Blizzards** - Severe snowstorms with strong winds and intense snowfall.
14. **Ice storms** - Type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain.
15. **Hailstorms** - Storms that produce hailstones.
16. **Extreme cold waves** - Periods of unusually cold weather.
17. **Wildfires** - Large, destructive fires that spread rapidly over woodland or brush.
18. **Dust storms** - Severe windstorms that lift clouds of dust into the atmosphere.
19. **Sandstorms** - Similar to dust storms but occur in deserts and can carry sand.
20. **Glacial lake outburst floods** - Sudden releases of water from a glacial lake due to glacier retreat.
21. **Landslides** - Movement of rock, earth, or debris down a sloped section of land.
22. **Avalanches** - Rapid flow of snow down a sloping surface.
23. **Mudslides** - Flow of mud caused by a mixture of water and soil.
24. **Tsunamis** - Series of ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides.
25. **El Niño and La Niña events** - Climate patterns that describe the unusual warming or cooling of the Pacific Ocean.
26. **Ocean acidification** - Decrease in pH of the Earth's oceans caused by uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
27. **Coral bleaching** - Whitening of corals due to stress induced by warmer temperatures.
28. **Sea level rise** - Increase in the level of the world's oceans due to the melting of ice and expansion of seawater as it warms.
29. **Arctic amplification** - Rapid warming of the Arctic compared to the rest of the world.
30. **Permafrost thaw** - Thawing of frozen soil in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
31. **Heat islands** - Urban areas that are significantly warmer than their rural surroundings.
32. **Monsoon variability** - Changes in the pattern, intensity, and timing of monsoon rains.
33. **Atmospheric rivers** - Long, narrow regions in the atmosphere that transport most of the water vapor outside of the tropics.
34. **Polar vortex disruptions** - Events where the usual swirling of the polar vortex is disrupted, leading to cold outbreaks.
35. **Sudden stratospheric warming** - Rapid warming of the stratosphere that can influence winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere.
36. **Lightning increases** - More frequent lightning as a result of higher temperatures.
37. **Increased evaporation** - Higher rates of evaporation due to warmer temperatures.
38. **Decreased snow cover** - Reductions in the amount of snow cover due to warmer temperatures.
39. **Increased cloud cover** - Changes in cloud formation influenced by changes in atmospheric conditions.
40. **Changing wind patterns** - Alterations in wind patterns influenced by changes in the global climate system.

These events not only highlight the diverse impacts of climate change but also underscore the importance of mitigation and adaptation strategies to manage and reduce risks associated with extreme weather.

References and Resources

Here is a list of 25 clickable links related to extreme weather events:


























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Exteme Weather Events